# Roman Numerals - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

When you think about numbers nowadays, the first of all that comes to mind is the decimal system we use regularly. This system, however, is not the single approach to represent numericals. There are many approaches used by various cultures all over the world that use all types of symbols. One of system is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have become a method of writing numericals utilizing a mixture of letters from the Latin alphabet. It remained throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still educated in school, that is probably why you have stumbled upon this article.

Now, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, definition, how they work, and how to transform Roman numbers to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

Primarily, let's take a quick look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numbers were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you may have predicted from the name. They were employed in several aspects of the Roman world, including business, architecture, and even war.

Presently, its widespread use is mainly due to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numerals as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman number approach represents numbers employing a mixture of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are mixed to create groups that portray numericals. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, symbolizes the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then mix these numericals to represent any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is established on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are established on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman number's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another key difference is that the decimal method is founded on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numbers are based on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we observe the number in the name, we see it consist of a V in it. This is due to the fact number 5 in Roman numerals is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we understand that this is the 4th to enter in the series using the characteristics we will talk about further ahead.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest to enter the original trilogy. Looking at the value described, it contains a V followed by an I. Thus, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, comprehending this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is important to understand the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this process easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with assigned number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Regular Numbers

Considering we have the convenient table of Roman numerals, we can use that data to change numericals back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will transform these values any time you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To change Roman numbers to decimal numericals, we will use the cumulative and subtractive principles we talked about.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is smaller in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is repeat this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's check out how you can change Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Since 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and the result is 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and we find 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equal to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we add the two values and we find 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Because we have arrived the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our answer. Therefore, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this data and a some practice, you will change Roman numerals to decimal numbers like a pro!

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