# Dividing Polynomials - Definition, Synthetic Division, Long Division, and Examples

Polynomials are arithmetical expressions that consist of one or more terms, all of which has a variable raised to a power. Dividing polynomials is an important working in algebra which involves figuring out the remainder and quotient once one polynomial is divided by another. In this article, we will examine the different approaches of dividing polynomials, including synthetic division and long division, and provide instances of how to apply them.

We will further talk about the importance of dividing polynomials and its utilizations in various domains of mathematics.

## Prominence of Dividing Polynomials

Dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra that has several uses in various fields of math, consisting of number theory, calculus, and abstract algebra. It is applied to solve a extensive array of challenges, consisting of figuring out the roots of polynomial equations, calculating limits of functions, and working out differential equations.

In calculus, dividing polynomials is applied to figure out the derivative of a function, which is the rate of change of the function at any point. The quotient rule of differentiation includes dividing two polynomials, which is utilized to find the derivative of a function which is the quotient of two polynomials.

In number theory, dividing polynomials is used to learn the features of prime numbers and to factorize huge numbers into their prime factors. It is further utilized to study algebraic structures for instance rings and fields, that are fundamental theories in abstract algebra.

In abstract algebra, dividing polynomials is used to specify polynomial rings, that are algebraic structures which generalize the arithmetic of polynomials. Polynomial rings are used in many domains of arithmetics, involving algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry.

## Synthetic Division

Synthetic division is an approach of dividing polynomials that is applied to divide a polynomial with a linear factor of the form (x - c), where c is a constant. The technique is founded on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, therefore the division of f(x) by (x - c) gives a quotient polynomial of degree n-1 and a remainder of f(c).

The synthetic division algorithm involves writing the coefficients of the polynomial in a row, utilizing the constant as the divisor, and performing a series of calculations to figure out the remainder and quotient. The result is a simplified form of the polynomial that is simpler to function with.

## Long Division

Long division is a technique of dividing polynomials that is utilized to divide a polynomial by another polynomial. The technique is based on the fact that if f(x) is a polynomial of degree n, and g(x) is a polynomial of degree m, at which point m ≤ n, next the division of f(x) by g(x) offers uf a quotient polynomial of degree n-m and a remainder of degree m-1 or less.

The long division algorithm consists of dividing the highest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor, and further multiplying the answer with the whole divisor. The answer is subtracted of the dividend to get the remainder. The procedure is recurring as far as the degree of the remainder is lower in comparison to the degree of the divisor.

## Examples of Dividing Polynomials

Here are some examples of dividing polynomial expressions:

### Example 1: Synthetic Division

Let's assume we want to divide the polynomial f(x) = 3x^3 + 4x^2 - 5x + 2 with the linear factor (x - 1). We can apply synthetic division to streamline the expression:

1 | 3 4 -5 2 | 3 7 2 |---------- 3 7 2 4

The answer of the synthetic division is the quotient polynomial 3x^2 + 7x + 2 and the remainder 4. Hence, we can state f(x) as:

f(x) = (x - 1)(3x^2 + 7x + 2) + 4

### Example 2: Long Division

Example 2: Long Division

Let's assume we want to divide the polynomial f(x) = 6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 with the polynomial g(x) = x^2 - 2x + 1. We could utilize long division to streamline the expression:

First, we divide the highest degree term of the dividend with the highest degree term of the divisor to obtain:

6x^2

Then, we multiply the total divisor by the quotient term, 6x^2, to attain:

6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2

We subtract this from the dividend to obtain the new dividend:

6x^4 - 5x^3 + 2x^2 + 9x + 3 - (6x^4 - 12x^3 + 6x^2)

that streamlines to:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3

We recur the process, dividing the highest degree term of the new dividend, 7x^3, by the highest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to achieve:

7x

Subsequently, we multiply the total divisor by the quotient term, 7x, to achieve:

7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x

We subtract this from the new dividend to achieve the new dividend:

7x^3 - 4x^2 + 9x + 3 - (7x^3 - 14x^2 + 7x)

that simplifies to:

10x^2 + 2x + 3

We repeat the method again, dividing the largest degree term of the new dividend, 10x^2, with the largest degree term of the divisor, x^2, to obtain:

10

Next, we multiply the entire divisor by the quotient term, 10, to get:

10x^2 - 20x + 10

We subtract this of the new dividend to obtain the remainder:

10x^2 + 2x + 3 - (10x^2 - 20x + 10)

that streamlines to:

13x - 10

Thus, the answer of the long division is the quotient polynomial 6x^2 - 7x + 9 and the remainder 13x - 10. We can express f(x) as:

f(x) = (x^2 - 2x + 1)(6x^2 - 7x + 9) + (13x - 10)

## Conclusion

In Summary, dividing polynomials is a crucial operation in algebra that has many applications in multiple domains of math. Getting a grasp of the different approaches of dividing polynomials, such as long division and synthetic division, could help in working out intricate problems efficiently. Whether you're a learner struggling to get a grasp algebra or a professional working in a domain that involves polynomial arithmetic, mastering the concept of dividing polynomials is crucial.

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